Tag Archive: Robotics

  1. Soccer Robots

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    Photo: Relaxing Robots, MoonSoleilIt’s the ultimate man versus machine. Soccer-playing robots are being designed to beat their human counterparts. But don’t worry, this technology is far from perfected.

    Robot soccer competitions have been occurring since the mid-1990s, and organizations such as the Federation of International Robot-soccer Association (FIRA) and the RoboCup Federation are promoting advances in artificial intelligence and robot design through these competitions. The hope is to achieve a robot team that can defeat the FIFA World Cup champions by the year 2050.

    The RoboCup competition and the FIRA RoboWorld Cup are both international competitions held every year between teams from different countries, many hailing from colleges and universities. Each team designs a robot to compete in a league, like the simulation league, small-sized robot league, and the humanoid league. So far, the robots have advanced from wheeled participants to bipedal players that fight for the ball and score goals. The next step, researchers say, is to get the robots running like humans, though the rough terrain of grass fields proves to be a difficult challenge.

    The U.S. RoboCup 2009 was held in May at Harvard University, with the University of Texas at Austin taking top honors and the University of Pennsylvania coming in second. The 2009 international competition took place in Graz, Austria, in July, where 3,000 participants from 40 different countries competed.

    Soccer is the perfect testing ground for robots because it involves a variety of functions, such as movement, vision, and strategy. Although the robots are designed for the soccer field, the research put into the competitions can have a larger impact. Robot technologies could be used for simple tasks around the house (think the Roomba, but more advanced) or in scenarios, like rescues, where robots can be used instead of risking human injury or death.

    Looking for more robotics-themed articles? Visit www.GraduatingEngineer.com.
    Photo: Relaxing Robots, MoonSoleil

  2. Wii Bit of Fun at Rice University

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    Why are some people fast learners? Can we teach everybody to be like them? Yes, Wii can! A Rice University research project recently funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) is making use of Nintendo’s popular video game technology to codify learning systems in ways that can be used in a range of human endeavors, from sports to surgery.

    Wii Bit of FunTwo Rice professors, Marcia O’Malley and Michael Byrne, are following up on O’Malley’s pioneering work using robots to treat stroke victims with a study to map out how people learn physical tasks, with the ultimate goal of programming robots to teach in new ways. With the new NSF grant, O’Malley and Byrne will spend the next three years measuring the motions involved in tasks as mundane as playing paddleball and as complex as flying a fighter jet.

    To do that, having a motion-capture device at hand will be invaluable, says O’Malley. The device is called an accelerometer, but video game fans know it as a Wiimote, the handheld wand that serves as a wireless interface between player and screen. “It’s the only part of the system we really need,” says O’Malley, director of Rice’s Mechatronics and Haptic Interfaces Laboratory. Byrne says they’ll compare data from the Wiimote to that from a more expensive Vicon motion capture system to “see how good the Wii really is.”

    “We’re already grabbing motion data from the Wiimote,” states O’Malley, “so soon we’ll be able to measure a range of motion and then turn it into a mathematical model.” For the researchers, here’s where the games really begin. Their ultimate plan is to bring together robotics and virtual reality in a way that lets people absorb information through repetition of the motor pathways. Think of hitting a tennis ball. Learning by trial-and-error is fine, but it would be much easier if a robotic sleeve could tell you exactly where that hitch in your swing is and gently prod you to hit the ball correctly.

    “Using the Wii will be a great way to recruit subjects,” says O’Malley. “We can say, ‘Hey, kids, come play some games!’”

    Their research into what they term the “cognitive modeling of human motor skill acquisition” will focus on three types of learners. “There are experts who learn at a slow, steady pace, but they get there,” she says. “There are novices, who learn at a slow, steady pace, but sometimes they never get there. And then there are those who start off awful, but somewhere in the middle of training they suddenly ‘get it.’

    “What will be interesting is, can we get this last group to ‘get it’ and become people who learn very quickly by honing in on the right cues? And can we get these people who learn very quickly to improve even faster? We’re interested in how these groups of performers differentiate, and if there are inherent characteristics of movement and control policies that lead to expertise.”

    Read more about robotics at www.GraduatingEngineer.com.